GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network

RS41 GRUAN Data Product Version 1

RS41-GDP.1 -- Certified GDP

DOI for scientific and technical data

10.5676/GRUAN/RS41-GDP.1 (not activated yet)


Sommer, M.; von Rohden, C.; Simeonov, T.; Dirksen, R.; Fiedler-Krüger, M.; Friedrich, H.; Körner, S.; Naebert, T.; Oelsner, P.; Tietz, R. (2022): RS41 GRUAN Data Product Version 1 (RS41-GDP.1). GRUAN Lead Centre (DWD), https://doi.org/10.5676/GRUAN/RS41-GDP.1


GRUAN Lead Centre (at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD))

Publication year


Creators / Authors

Sommer, Michael (1); von Rohden, Christoph (1); Simeonov, Tzvetan (1); Dirksen, Ruud (1); Fiedler-Krüger, Marion (1); Friedrich, Helge (1); Körner, Susanne (1); Naebert, Tatjana (1); Oelsner, Peter (1); Tietz, Rico (1)

(1) GRUAN Lead Centre, Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Am Observatorium 12, 15848 Tauche/Lindenberg, Germany

Description / Summary

This dataset comprises reference radiosoundings performed with the Vaisala RS41 radiosonde including subtypes with and without pressure sensor. Reference, in this case, means:

The GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) data processing (GDP) for the Vaisala RS41 radiosonde was developed to meet these reference criteria. The algorithms of the RS41-GDP in version 1 include corrections of the raw calibrated data for systematic errors in measurements of pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. The corrections for the most important systematic errors (solar radiative warming of the temperature sensor and increased response time of the humidity sensor at low temperature) are based on extensive laboratory experiments. GRUAN sounding operation includes all manufacturer-prescribed ground checks. Additionally, pre-launch checks using the Standard Humidity Chamber (SHC) are routinely performed in GRUAN, the results of  which are however not used for recalibrations or corrections but contribute to the uncertainty budget.

Measurement uncertainties are estimated at the vertical resolution of the measured data. For each main variable, overall uncertainties are given as combinations of individual components using common uncertainty propagation. As a new approach, each of these individual components is assigned one of the three following correlation properties: uncorrelated, spatially correlated, or temporally correlated. This is done comprehensively in the sense that the uncertainties resulting from the combination of the correlated components are consistent with the overall uncertainties that are calculated in the conventional uncertainty evaluation. This facilitates the user to take correlations in uncertainty analyses into account.

The RS41 is in use in GRUAN since late 2014 and is currently launched regularly at 22 sites. As such it is the backbone of radiosounding activities within the network.






226.9 GiB (2022-12-22), increasing

Peer-reviewed Articles

von Rohden 2022: von Rohden, C., Sommer, M., Naebert, T., Motuz, V., and Dirksen, R. J.: Laboratory characterisation of the radiation temperature error of radiosondes and its application to the GRUAN data processing for the Vaisala RS41, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 383–405, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-15-383-2022, 2022.

User documentation

GRUAN-TD-8: Michael Sommer, Christoph von Rohden, Tzvetan Simeonov, Peter Oelsner, Tatjana Naebert, Gonzague Romanens, Hannu Jauhiainen, Petteri Survo, Ruud Dirksen (2022): GRUAN characterisation and data processing of the Vaisala RS41 radiosonde. GRUAN Lead Centre, GRUAN Technical Document 8 (GRUAN-TD-8), v0.9.1 (2022-04-12) submitted and in review.

GRUAN-TN-13: Michael Sommer, Christoph von Rohden, Tzvetan Simeonov (2022): User Guide for the RS41 GRUAN Data Product Version 1 (RS41-GDP.1). GRUAN Lead Centre, GRUAN Technical Note 13 (GRUAN-TN-13), v1.0 (2022-11-21).

Spatial and Temporal Coverage (Availability)

Dataset includes Vaisala RS41 soundings of following GRUAN sites:

Dataset details and ordering

Other documents

Immler 2010: Immler, F. J.; Dykema, J.; Gardiner, T.; Whiteman, D. N.; Thorne, P. W. and Vömel, H., Reference Quality Upper-Air Measurements: guidance for developing GRUAN data products. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2010, 3, 1217–1231, doi:10.5194/amt-3-1217-2010.

Related Presentations

ICM-14 (Nov/Dec 2022)
ICM-13 (Nov 2021)
EMS2021 (Sep 2021)
EGU21 (Apr 2021)
ICM-12 (Nov 2020)
ICM-11 (June 2019)