GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network


Assessment of AIRS Version 7 Temperature Profiles and Low-Level Inversions with GRUAN Radiosonde Observations in the Arctic



Zhang, L.; Ding, M.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.; Guo, J.; Bian, L.


by Remote Sensing (RS) at 2023-02-25



The extensive global climate observing system (GCOS) reference upper-air network (GRUAN) datasets provide a chance to validate newly released Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 7 (v7) products over the Arctic. This manuscript reports on the analysis performed to evaluate errors from AIRS version 6 (v6) and v7 temperature profiles and to characterize the derived low-level temperature inversion (LLI) representativeness in the Arctic region. The AIRS averaging kernel, representing the AIRS measurement sensitivity, is applied to reduce the vertical resolution of the radiosonde profiles for comparison. Due to improved retrieval algorithms, v7 produces smaller biases in the troposphere and suppresses the cold bias in v6. Nevertheless, the profile-averaged root mean square error (RMSE) increased by over 30% in v7, particularly in the winter half-year when v7 showed a larger RMSE below 800 hPa. The AIRS temperature retrieval accuracy is primarily sensitive to surface type and cloud fraction. Compared to v6, v7 has less bias over frozen land and sea ice in different cloud fraction conditions. However, the RMSEs of v7 are more sensitive to the effective cloud fraction (ECF) and are highly influenced by a more significant contribution from nonfrozen land samples. Compared to the kernel-averaged radiosonde profiles, more than 80% of the temperature profiles from v6 and v7 accurately detect LLIs. The discreteness of the AIRS’s predefined pressure level results is consistent with the radiosondes only 65% of the time for LLI depth calculation. In contrast, the AIRS can obtain LLI intensity with a relatively high correlation (>0.9). With the AIRS temperature retrieval in the boundary layer further improved, it has the potential to be used as an independent LLI detector in the Arctic region.




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